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10:19 

Know of

know of someone or something means to be aware of the existence of someone or something; to have information about someone or something.

Examples:
I think I know of someone who can help you.
I didn't know of Wally's arrival.
Do you know of a way to remove this stain?
We've never met, but I certainly know of him.

Usage notes:
Also used in the spoken phrase not that I know of (= I do not know).

Example:
- Is he home yet?
- Not that I know of.

запись создана: 29.11.2010 в 09:34

10:18 

Clothes idioms

wear one's heart on one's sleeve - to show one's feelings clearly and openly by one's behavior; to be an open book.



Origin:
From the old custom in which a young man tied to his sleeve a favour — perhaps a ribbon or handkerchief — given to him by a lady as a sign of her affection (i.e. of her heart). The expression is now used of one's own heart (i.e. feelings) on one's own sleeve.

Example:
You can't help but see how he feels about her; he wears his heart on his sleeve.
John has always worn his heart on his sleeve, so there's no doubt who he'll be supporting.

get shirty (with smb.) - become angry with someone.



Example:
Don't get shirty with me! I'm only reporting the new rules.

have smth. up one's sleeve - to have secret plans or ideas; to have a secret or surprise plan or solution (to a problem).

It alludes to cheating at cards by having a card hidden in one's sleeve.

Examples:
I've got something up my sleeve, and it should solve all your problems. I'll tell you what it is after I'm elected.
If I know her she'll have a couple of tricks up her sleeve.
We've been negotiating my new pay and conditions, but I've kept the other job offer up my sleeve for the time being.

off the cuff - improvised; spontaneous; without preparation or rehearsal.

An off-the-cuff remark is one that is not planned (always before noun).

Examples:
Speaking off the cuff I'd say the scheme is doomed to failure.
He made several off-the-cuff remarks which he later denied.
Her remarks were off-the-cuff, but very sensible.

A: The professor called on me today to give a presentation.
B: Really? Were you prepared?
A: No, I had to deliver the presentation off the cuff. I don’t want to have to do that again.

give (smb.) the boot - to get rid of somebody; to fire someone, to force someone to leave a place.



Example:
They gave him the boot for swearing at his manager.
She gave him the boot because he wouldn't stop talking about his ex-girlfriends.

tighten one's belt - to spend less money.



Examples:
Things are beginning to cost more and more. It looks like we'll all have to tighten our belts.
Times are hard, and prices are high. I can tighten my belt for only so long.

buckle down (to) - to apply oneself with determination; to begin to work seriously at something.



Examples:
You had better buckle down and get busy.
All right, we'll buckle down now and study for exams.
They chatted idly for a few moments then each buckled down to work.
Jim was fooling instead of studying; so his father told him to buckle down.

Originating about 1700 as buckle to, the expression gained currency with the football song “Buckle-Down, Winsocki” (from the Broadway musical comedy Best Foot Forward, 1941).

21:16 

What's the difference?

In time & on time

Их значения немного разнятся. Если вы пунктуальны и, например, никогда не опаздываете, вы всегда on time.

Example:
The bus left on time.
The show started on time.
He is always on time.

Если вы торопитесь выполнить работу, вас подгоняют сроки и вы все делаете во время - то есть к сроку, вы in time.

Example:
He could not get home in time due to the traffic jam.
A stitch in time saves nine.

In the beginning & at the beginning (in the end & at the end)

In the beginning указывает начало в общем значении или относится к началу, как к длительному периоду времени. Оно равно по значению с at first, initially (in the end = finally).

Example:
In the beginning my job was interesting, now it got to be boring.
In the beginning of the following story a very different moment of the Civil War is specificated.
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

At the beginning (of) точно определяет начало чего-то (встречи, мероприятия, т.д.).

Example:
At the beginning of the meeting the secretary took the floor.
At the beginning of the season the players could not relax sufficiently to show their real strength.
She just moved here at the beginning of the term.

to take the floor - взять слово, выступить

hear smb./smth. do something & hear smb./smth. doing something

Example:
He heard the door slam shut.
She heard the dog barking outside.

Разница состоит в том, какую часть процесса вы (он, она) услышали. Если вы были свидетелем целого процесса (Например, он услышал как дверь захлопнули), тогда смело используйте инфинитив без частицы to.

Example:
I saw him enter the house.
He heard her scream.

Если же вы стали свидетелем части действия, тогда используйте форму -ing.

Example: I heard her screaming in the street.
запись создана: 05.11.2010 в 11:27

12:10 

Trivia

Знаменитую фразу Хрущева "Я вам покажу кузькину мать!" на ассамблее ООН перевели буквально - "Kuzma's mother". Смысл фразы был совершенно непонятен, и от этого угроза приобрела совершенно зловещий характер. Впоследствии выражение "Kuzma's mother" использовалось также для обозначения атомных бомб СССР.

***

Когда кто-то уходит, не прощаясь, мы употребляем выражение "ушел по-английски". В оригинале эту идиому придумали сами англичане, а звучала она как "to take French leave". Появилась она в период Семилетней войны в XVIII веке в насмешку над французскими солдатами, самовольно покидавшими расположение части. Тогда же французы скопировали это выражение, но уже в отношении англичан, и в этом виде оно закрепилось в русском языке.

***

В английском языке существует корректное предложение из восьми одинаковых слов подряд и без знаков препинания: "Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo".
Перевести его можно так: "Бизоны из Баффало, напуганные другими бизонами из Баффало, пугают бизонов из Баффало".

***
"High school" в английском языке значит совсем не "высшая школа", а "средняя школа" или, еще точнее, "старшие классы средней школы". В американской 12-летней системе образования это 9-12 классы. А "высшая школа" по-английски будет "higher school"; соответственно, "высшее учебное заведение" - "institute of higher education" или "higher education establishment".

***

Аляска была продана Соединенным Штатам в 1867 году за сумму чуть больше 100 миллионов долларов в пересчете на сегодняшний день. Через тридцать лет после продажи там открыли месторождения золота и началась знаменитая "золотая лихорадка", а в XX веке были открыты и крупные месторождения нефти и газа с общими запасами на сумму в 100-180 миллиардов долларов. Однако если бы мы не продавали Аляску, существовал большой риск потерять ее вообще без компенсации. Британская империя, с которой у Российской Империи были враждебные отношения, могла оккупировать Аляску и присоединить ее к Канаде.

***

Слово "blockbuster" появилось в 1942, обозначая первоначально 4-тонную авиабомбу, способную уничтожить сразу целый городской квартал (bust a block), и лишь затем приобрело значение "кассовый фильм, результат дорогой и пышной постановки".

***

Есть такая поговорка в русском языке: Все, что ни делается, - все к лучшему. Ее английский эквивалент - Whatever happens, happens for the better/best.
С этой поговоркой нужно обращаться аккуратно: часто сочетание "к лучшему" почему-то переводят как "for good" и садятся при этом в калошу. Хитрость в том, что for good означает не что иное, как "навеки, навсегда". А happens все таки for the better/best, и никак иначе.

***

Американские феминистки усмотрели в слове history (история) местоимение his (его), и предложили историю женщин называть herstory, хотя слово history - греческого происхождения и к современному притяжательному местоимению his никакого отношения не имеет.
В параллель к слову hero (герой) предложено употреблять слово shero. Можно представить, сколько шуток и насмешек прозвучало из несгибаемого лагеря ревнителей традиции! Предлагали тогда уж переименовать остров Манхэттен (Manhattan, индейское слово) в Personhattan, mailmen (почтальоны, в слове слышится male) в регsonpeople, и тому подобное.

***

Фраза "to start from scratch" - "начать с нуля" - появилась в конце XIX века, и тогда просто значила "начинать без преимуществ"‘. Слово "scratch" использовалось с XVIII века как спортивный термин, обозначающий линию старта, прочерченную на земле. Впервые такая линия упоминалась в описании игры в крикет - на ней стоял игрок, отбивающий мяч.
"Start from scratch" в качестве понятия "начинать с нуля" пришло из бокса. Прочерченная линия определяла позиции боксеров, когда они стояли друг напротив друга в начале поединка. Отсюда также произошло выражение "up to scratch", (быть на должной высоте, в прекрасной форме), т.е. соответствовать стандартам, предъявляемым боксерам, делающим заявку на матч.

***

Существует десять основных языков, на которых говорит наибольшее число людей: пекинский диалект китайского языка (874 млн. человек), хинди (366 млн.), английский (341 млн.), испанский (по разным оценкам 320-258 млн.), бенгали (207 млн.), португальский (176 млн.), русский (167 млн.), японский (125 млн.), немецкий (100 млн.), корейский (78 млн.).
Любопытно, что половина из этих языков - европейские, несмотря на то, что Европа - родина всего 4% мировых языков. Английский язык - родной для примерно 341 млн. человек. Как язык международного бизнеса и информационных технологий он стал вторым языком для примерно 350 млн. человек.

***

Сокращенное английское название Рождества "X-Mas" содержит на первом месте вовсе не латинскую букву "икс", а греческую букву "хи", которая использовалась в средневековых манускриптах как аббревиатура слова "Христос" (т.е. xus=christus).

***

Мировой рекорд установил английский язык, первым среди других языков зарегистрировав миллионное слово (June 2009). Им стало "Web 2.0", означающее новое поколение интерактивных продуктов и услуг интернета. Для того чтобы установить данный рекорд, английскому языку потребовалось полторы тысячи лет.
Подсчет количества слов в основных языках ведет калифорнийская компания Global Language Monitor (GLM). Она осуществляет мониторинг появления и употребления слов в печатных и электронных СМИ, выявляя новые слова и устанавливая количество и контекст их использования.
"Английский подтвердил, что является первым и подлинно глобальным языком", заявил президент GLM Пол Пейяк.
Как считают специалисты, для повседневного обихода человек использует от двух до пяти тысяч слов. В результате едва ли в мире есть человек, который знает и употребляет миллион слов в своей речи. Кстати, Шекспир в своих произведениях использовал 24 тысячи слов, при этом он сам придумал 1,7 тысяч из них.
Характерно, что миллионным словом стал термин, относящийся к новейшим интернет-технологиям. Однако не все специалисты согласны с подходом GLM. По мнению ряда оппонентов, обойдены вниманием такие слова как 'Jai ho' (похвала, победа), 'slumdog' (житель трущоб), n00b (пренебрежительный термин, обозначающий новичка).

11:15 

Язык газетных и журнальных заголовков

Язык газетных и журнальных заголовков отличается от стиля языка, который можно встретить в художественной литературе. Во-первых, заголовки печатных СМИ служат, чтобы привлечь читателя: они печатаются крупным шрифтом, они кратко сообщают о главной идее статьи, они сообщают об идее статьи оригинальным или сенсационным способом.

Во-вторых, сам английский язык в силу своей структуры (наличие множества вспомогательных слов - артиклей, предлогов, глаголов) наложил отпечаток на развитие языка заголовков. Чтобы передать сообщение кратко и броско, журналистам приходится избавляться от груза малых слов, которые не несут в себе значения, но занимают место.

С целью привлечь взор читателя журналисты часто прибегают к речевым конструкциям, которые редко встретишь в обыденной речи:
- использование инфинитива: Obama administration to announce new nuclear strategy
- использования герундия: Delivering Patrick Donahoe: Delivering Morale Amid USPS Cuts
- использования Present Simple по отношению к прошлым событиям: Apple sells 300,000 on debut

В заголовках часто встречаются сложные выражения, где целые группы слов служат определениями: Today's Biggest Talent-Management Challenges.

Заголовки могут строиться в форме вопросов, чья структура не характерна нормальному английскому: Anyone for stuffed glis glis or parakeet pie?

Этот список отклонений от классической грамматики можно продолжить. Зайдите на сайт любой англоязычной газеты и вы убедитесь в этом самостоятельно.

11:10 

Again... a bit about articles

С нулевым артиклем употребляются существительные в составе некоторых устойчивых выражений.

а) Существительные, обозначающие учреждения, обычно употребляются с нулевым артиклем, если подразумевается использование этих учреждений по назначению, и с определенным артиклем, если они обозначают просто место.

Peter is in hospital — Питер в больнице (на лечении)
Но: I saw her in the hospital — Я видел ее в больнице (в здании больницы)

to go to bed — ложиться в кровать (чтобы спать)
Но: to sit on the bed — сидеть на кровати (использовать кровать как место для сидения)

б) С нулевым артиклем, как правило, используются существительные, входящие в состав устойчивых выражений с повторением одного и того же существительного или сопоставлением соотносимых понятий:
arm in arm — под руку, рука об руку
end to end — непрерывной цепью
inch by inch — мало-помалу
day after day — день за днем
with knife and fork — ножом и вилкой
from top to bottom — сверху донизу
in sickness and in health — в болезни и в здравии
on land and sea — на суше и на море

10:38 

Как по-английски "вести себя вызывающе"?

Some popular expressions are a mystery. No-one is sure how they developed. One of these is the expression - carry a chip on your shoulder. A person with a chip on his shoulder is a problem for anybody who must deal with him. He seems to be expecting trouble. Sometimes he seems to be saying, “I’m not happy about anything, but what are you going to do about it?”
A chip is a small piece of something, like a chip of wood. How did this chip get on a person’s shoulder? Well, experts say the expression appears to have been first used in the United States more than one hundred years ago.



One writer believes that the expression might have come from an old saying. The saying warns against striking too high, or a chip might fall into your eye. That could be good advice. If you strike high up on a tree with an axe, the chip of wood that is cut off will fall into your eye. The saying becomes a warning about the dangers of attacking people who are in more important positions than you are.
Later, in the United States, some people would put a real chip on their shoulder as a test. They wanted to start a fight. They would wait for someone to be brave enough to try to knock it off.
The word chip appears in a number of special American expressions. Another is chip off the old block. This means that a child is exactly like a parent.



This expression goes back at least to the early 1600. The British writer of plays, George Colman, wrote these lines in 1762: “You’ll find him his father’s own son, I believe. A chip off the old block, I promise you!”



The word chip can also be used in a threatening way to someone who is suspected of wrongdoing. An investigator may say, “We’re going to let the chips fall where they may.” This means the investigation is going to be complete and honest. It is also a warning that no-one will be protected from being found guilty.
Chips are often used in card games. They represent money. A poker player may, at any time, decide to leave the game. He will turn in his chips in exchange for money or cash (= cash (one's chips) in).



This lead to another meaning. A person who finished or died was said to have cashed in his chips. Which is a way of saying it is time for me to finish this program.

More examples:
1. "He lost his game this morning, and now he has a chip on his shoulder."
A person who has "a chip on his shoulder" is angry because of something that happened in the past.

2. "Watch out for that guy, he's got a chip on his shoulder."
It is easy for a person to get in a fight when he has a chip on his shoulder, because he is already angry about something else.

3. - "What's bothering that guy?" -"Nothing. He's just got a chip on the shoulder."

4. "Tom had a tough time growing up, so he's got a bit of a chip on his shoulder."

5. "Why did you get so angry at the slightest criticism? You seem to have a chip on your shoulder."

6. "John looks like his father—a real chip off the old block."

7. "Bill Jones, Jr. is a chip off the old block. He's a banker just like his father."

8. "She enjoys bossing people around just like her mother used to do - she's a real chip off the old block!"

9. "When you leave the game, you should cash your chips in."

10. "There's a funeral procession. Who cashed his chips in?"

18:57 

Relationships & Love QUIZ

Choose an idiom to replace the expression in the brackets:

1. She was (very much in love with) the junior accountant in her office.

(a) interested in
(b) double dating
(c) head over heels in love with
(d) stealing the heart of

2. The young man seemed to be a wonderful person and before long he had (made the young woman fall in love with him).

(a) become hung up on the young woman
(b) dumped the young woman
(c) found the young woman Mr. Right
(d) stolen the young woman's heart

3. The boy (had strong feelings of love for) the girl in junior high school.

(a) hit it off with
(b) had a crush on
(c) was attracted to
(d) dated

4. After dating for three years they finally decided to (get married).

(a) tie the knot
(b) be good together
(c) kiss and make up
(d) get back together

5. They were very happy at first but after several years their marriage appeared to be (experiencing problems).

(a) getting serious
(b) on the rocks
(c) a match made in heaven
(d) puppy love

6. They planned to (get married) in the summer and buy a house together.

(a) pop the question
(b) kiss and make up
(c) hit it off
(d) walk down the aisle together

7. The woman went (on a date where she didn't know the other person) but it wasn't very successful.

(a) on a double date
(b) on a blind date
(c) out with someone
(d) dutch

8. Although they had some problems in their relationship they worked very hard to (repair it).

(a) split up
(b) get serious
(c) patch it up
(d) get back together

9. The couple always appeared to be (an ideal couple).

(a) the perfect couple
(b) the one and only
(c) good together
(d) making eyes at each other

10. The young couple both believed that they had finally found (a genuine feeling of romantic love) with each other.

(a) unrequited love
(b) first love
(c) love at first sight
(d) true love

11. The couple had been having many problems so they decided to (end their relationship).

(a) set a date
(b) break up
(c) get hitched
(d) make up

12. The two students have been (dating each other regularly) for six months.

(a) saying "I do"
(b) dumping each other
(c) seeing each other
(d) interested in each other

13. After seven years of dating they decided to (get married and establish a regular routine).

(a) settle down and marry
(b) go steady
(c) give each other a second chance
(d) say those three little words

14. The young man was finally brave enough to (invite the young woman for a date).

(a) fall for the young woman
(b) walk out on the young woman
(c) go out with the young woman
(d) ask the young woman out

The answers are:
читать дальше

17:48 

Relationships & Love (Idioms)

make eyes at someone - to look at someone in a way that makes it clear that you like that person and find them attractive.

Example: The man became angry when he thought that his girlfriend was making eyes at someone else at the party.

a match made in heaven - a couple who get along perfectly.

Example: When the two people finally got together it was a match made in heaven and everyone thought that they would stay together forever.



to be on the rocks - a relationship or a marriage that is experiencing problems.

Example: They are experiencing many problems at the moment and their relationship appears to be on the rocks.

one and only - the only person that one loves.

Example: She was his one and only and he felt lost when the relationship ended.



patch up a relationship - to repair a broken relationship.

Example: Although the couple had been fighting and wanted to separate, they managed to patch up their relationship and are now very happy together.

puppy love - strong feelings of love between school-age children or teenagers.

Example: The two teenagers thought that their love was the greatest in the world but everyone knew that it was only puppy love.





seeing someone - to be dating someone on a regular basis.

Example: The woman was not seeing anyone when she met a man who she liked at the party.



settle down - to establish a regular routine after getting married.

Example: After dating dozens of women the young man finally decided to settle down.



split up - two people in a relationship decide to end their relationship.

Example: My sister's daughter and her boyfriend decided to split up after being together for seven years.

tie the knot - to get married.

Example: After dating for several years the young couple suddenly decided to tie the knot.

unrequited love - [anrikwaitid] - love that is not returned, one-way love.

Example: The woman was in love with the president of her company but from the beginning it was a case of unrequited love.





walk out on - to abandon your partner and end a relationship.

Example: The man walked out on his wife and their small baby and nobody knew the reason why.

to whisper sweet nothings in someone's ear - romantic, intimate talk.

Example: The movie was rather romantic and most of the scenes had the actor whispering sweet nothings in the ear of the actress.


17:25 

Relationships & Love (Idioms)

to be attracted to (someone) - to feel a physical or emotional attraction to someone.

Example: I was attracted to the woman at the party from the moment that I first met her.



blind date - a date where the two people have never met before.

Example: I went on a blind date in university but it did not work out very well.



break up - end a relationship.

Example: They broke up after dating for more than three years.





crazy about (someone) - to think that another person is wonderful.

Example: My cousin has been crazy about the bank manager for many months now.



date someone - to go on or have a date with someone.

Example: My sister has been dating her boyfriend for over two years now.

double date - a date where two couples get together to do something.

Example: It was a good idea to go on the double date even though everybody wanted to do something different.



dump someone - to end a relationship by telling someone that you don't want to see him or her.

Example: The woman dumped her boyfriend after they began to have many fights.

fall for (someone) - to fall in love with someone.

Example: She always seems to fall for the wrong person and is never happy.

fall in love (with someone) - to begin to feel love for someone.

Example: He fell in love with a woman from his university class and they got married several months later.



find Mr. Right - to find the right or perfect person.

Example: She is always hoping to find Mr. Right but so far she hasn't had any luck.



get along with someone - have a good friendly relationship with someone.

Example: The woman gets along with her friends very well.



get back together - to return to a relationship or marriage after breaking up.

Example: The man got back together with his girlfriend after separating for several months last winter.

get engaged - to decide to marry someone.

Example: He got engaged to his wife several years before they actually got married.



go dutch - a date where each person pays half of the expenses.

Example: In university many of the students had little money so they often went dutch when they were on a date.

to be good together - two people who get along well with each other.

Example: They are very good together and nobody has ever seen them argue.



go out with someone - to go on a date or be dating someone.

Example: I have been going out with a woman from my hiking club for several months now.

have a crush (on someone) - have strong feelings of love for someone (often for a short time and with no results).

Example: The young girl had a crush on her teacher in junior high school but of course it was an impossible situation.



have a thing for (someone) - to be attracted and care a lot about someone.

Example: She seems to have a thing for the new guy who just started to work at her company.

to be head over heels in love with someone - to be very much in love with someone.

Example: My friend is head over heels in love with the accountant in his new company.



hit it off (with someone) - to get along well with someone (usually from the beginning).

Example: I hit it off with a man in my photography class and we have been dating for several months now.

hung up on someone - to be obsessed with another person.

Example: The young woman has been hung up on a member of her tennis club for many months now.

kiss and make up - to become friends again after a fight or an argument.

Example: After they have a fight the couple is always very quick to kiss and make up.
Ian and I used to fight a lot, but we always kissed and made up afterwards.



leave someone for someone else - to end a relationship with your partner and start a relationship with someone else.

Example: The man left his wife for his secretary but soon discovered that his life was worse than before.


Different examples with Relationship & Love idioms:
The man broke his girlfriend's heart when he told her that he was no longer in love with her.
After dating his girlfriend for several years he finally asked for her hand in marriage.
Her first love was with a boy in her high school art class.
The girl's boyfriend left her for several months but when he wanted to come back she was happy to give him a second chance.
My sister has been interested in one of the students in her university biology class for many months now.
When I saw the man at the party it was love at first sight and I knew that I wanted to meet him.
Although we had some differences we got along very well together and seemed to be made for each other.
The couple had a big fight at the restaurant but they quickly made up and things quickly got back to normal.
When she moved to Madrid she joked that she would never return home if she met the right guy.
As soon as I introduced my girlfriend to my mother she said that she was probablythe one for me.
Our neighbours have always seemed to be the perfect couple.
He loved the woman very much and was hoping that she would say "I do" as soon as they could make the wedding arrangements.
After thinking about marriage for a long time they have finally decided to set a date.
She quickly stole the heart of the man who was working beside her at her office.
After several months of dating the young man finally said those three little words to his girlfriend (= "I love you").
It seemed like true love until we began to fight all of the time.


06:51 

4 Polina only

Javier Bardem is very happy about Penelope Cruz’s pregnancy.
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06:36 

Internet statistics

— нынешнее население Земли - 6,89 млрд. человек (июль 2010 г.);
— население РФ составляет 141,9 млн. человек (май 2010 г.);
— количество ПК в мире - около 2 млрд.;
— общее количество ПК в России - 52,3 млн.;
— количество пользователей Интернета в мире - около 2 млрд. человек;
— число активных интернет-пользователей в России: суточная аудитория - 25,8 млн. человек, недельная аудитория - 36,6 млн. человек, месячная аудитория - 41,1 млн. человек;
— средний возраст российского пользователя интернета - 30 лет;
— средний пользователь интернета проводит в месяц 31,3 часа на просторах "всемирной паутины", в течение которых он просматривает около 2500 веб-страниц;
— объем генерируемой во всем мире информации ежегодно увеличивается на 50%;
— всё большей популярностью пользуются электронные деньги и интернет-магазины;
— доступ к интернету имеют 50 тысяч российских школ.

По данным всероссийского опроса ВЦИОМ, проведенном весной 2010 г., в интернет пользователи чаще всего выходят дома (82%). Сравнительно меньше тех, кто выходит в сеть на рабочем месте (13%). В меньшинстве - те, кто пользуется интернетом в гостях (3%) или в интернет-кафе (1%). Наиболее активное время - пользование глобальной сетью - с 19.00 до 23.00. Именно в это время выходят в интернет около 60%. Те, кто активно использует интернет на работе, чаще всего выходят в сеть в послеобеденное время (с 15.00 до 19.00 - 56%) или же в обеденное время (с 12.00 до 15.00 - 41%).

10:49 

Subjects and Verbs

We use singular verbs after indefinite pronouns (everybody, nobody etc.) as subjects. We usually use singular verbs after subjects beginning with none of and neither of in formal situations.

Example:
Nobody except his parents was silling to help.
None of the candidates has much support.
Neither of King Henry's sons was born in France.

We use singular verbs after some subjects that seem to be plural: some nouns ending in -s, phrases describing an amount and some combinations with and. There are some nouns such as people and police which appear to be singular, but which are used with a plural verb.

Example:

Cards is more than a game for some people.



Measles is a disease.
Fifty pounds is too much.
Twenty miles was too far and two days wasn't enough time.
Tom and Jerry is a rather violent cartoon.

The police are trying to stop speeding in the city, but people are still driving too fast.



We can use a group noun as subject to refer to several people, with a plural verb, or to refer to the group as a single unit, with a singular verb, depending on our point of view.

Example:
The Welsh team are getting tired (team = players of the team).
The Welsh team is in the second place (team = unit).
The committee have not expressed all their views.
The committee has not reached as decision yet.

Other group nouns include: audience, class, crowd, enemy, family, government, orchestra, staff

08:51 

British English and American English

Считается, что форма that предпочтительна для британского варианта английского языка, форма this - для американского.



Чтобы попросить подойти к телефону, можно сказать: "Could I speak to…?"
В Американском английском можно также спросить: "Could I speak with…?"

Основное различие в значении говорить/общаться в том, что speak to - британский вариант, а в северной Америке предпочитают speak with. Тут идет речь о разговоре с человеком.

Could I please speak to/with John, please?

With также используется после speak, когда необходимо описать, как вы говорите/рассказываете:

Jack spoke with an outstanding American accent.

Но есть также отдельное выражение to speak to smb., которое означает "порицать, ругать, наставлять". Оттенок данного выражения-таки неприятный.

- Your son broke a window with a soccer ball.
- I am going to speak to him. ~ Я с ним серьезно поговорю.

08:50 

Единственное и множественное число сомнительных существительных

Spaghetti - несмотря на то, что форма слова spaghetti - множественное число в итальянском, откуда оно берет свое начало, В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ spaghetti используется в единственном числе = блюдо: Spaghetti is difficult to eat.



Jeans / trousers всегда во множественном числе: Her jeans are very fashionable.



Youth - данное слово используется как во множественном, так и в единственном числе.



Во множественном числе: когда идет речь о молодежи, как о множестве молодых людей.
The youth of these days are different from ten years ago.

В единственном числе: когда идет речь об одном человеке ИЛИ когда слово обозначает "молодость"(период жизни)
The youth (= a youngster) was smart and intelligent.
The youth passes quickly.

the British / the English - используется во множественном числе, когда идет речь о народе - британцы/англичане.
The British adore football.

Со словом family и со словом team такая же ситуация.
Когда вы имеете ввиду семью в целом (ячейку общества), тогда оно всегда в единственном числе.
В случае, когда необходимо указать, что семья - это группа людей, тогда согласуем с глаголом в множественном числе.
My family is big, но My family always gather at our annual union.


08:41 

Small talk with British people




Small talk is a pleasant conversation about common interests.

КАК ВЕСТИ БЕСЕДУ ТАКОГО РОДА:

1. Не ленитесь узнать больше о своих собеседниках заранее
2. Не трогайте религию и политику
3. Найдите нужную терминологию в Интернете
4. Посмотрите на себя
5. Найдите точки соприкосновения
6. Слушайте

Об этом стоит беседовать:

Sports – актуальные события из спорта
Hobbies – тоже неплохая тема
Family – только не личные вопросы
Weather – банально, но пойдет, если нет ничего лучше
Cinema, books – да, да и еще раз да
Holidays – совсем поверхностно
Home country – угу, тоже интересно
Job – только не доходя до зарплаты

Могу также добавить сплетни из мира моды или слухи об известных личностях. Но, опять же, все зависит от собеседника и вас.

Темы-табу:

Salary – не спрашивайте, сколько зарабатывает ваш собеседник
Religion– очень чувствительная тема
Death – она придет когда-нибудь, но зачем о ней сейчас?
Sales – не пытайтесь всучить что-то собеседнику
Private life – не затрагивайте тему личных отношений

08:39 

Sport ИЛИ Sports



В принципе, когда идет речь о видах спорта (футбол, баскетбол, легкая атлетика) , используют sports (во множественном числе).
I enjoy winter sports like hockey and skiing. - Мне нравятся зимние виды спорта такие, как хоккей и катание на лыжах.

Если имеется ввиду деятельность для поддержания здоровья или для развлечения, тогда можно использовать sport (в единственном числе). Такое использование характерно для британского английского.
He used to do a lot of sport, when he was in his twenties. - Он привык интенсивно заниматься спортом, когда ему было около двадцати лет.

Sports также широко используется в качестве прилагательного: sports day - день спорта.

09:15 

Jared Padalecki is answering some questions about Supernatural


10:50 

Pictures...






09:35 

Nice expressions



Scream oneself hoarse - to scream very loudly.

Example: I screamed myself hoarse on the roller coaster.

***



in over one's head - the situation is too difficult for you. You are in over your head when you face a challenge you are not able to meet.

The analogy is to an unskilled swimmer who has fallen into water that is too deep. Over one's head refers to the depth of the situation one is in. The situation has become more serious than the person is prepared for.

Example: The new PR Manager felt like she was in over her head during her first week at the new job.
Go ahead and lead the meeting today; I'll help you out if you get in over your head.

***



hit close to home - having a direct personal effect on you

Example: Her novel about a teenager's drug addiction hit a little too close to home for my taste.
That remark about their marriage hit close to home.

Usage notes: usually said about something that upsets or embarrasses you. The noun home here means “the heart of something”.

***



to bite one's tongue off - to stop yourself from saying something because it would be better not to, even if you would like to say it. This term alludes to holding the tongue between the teeth in an effort not to say something one might regret.

Example: I really wanted to tell her what I thought of him, but I had to bite my tongue off.
A new grandmother must learn to bite her tongue off so as not to give unwanted advice.
I'm sure it'll rain during graduation.—Bite your tongue off!

***



give oneself over to - to devote oneself to someone or something.

Example: Laurie gave herself over to her work and soon forgot her pain.
David gave himself over to the religious order.

***



to call the shots - to be the person who makes all the important decisions and who has the most power in a situation; to make the decisions; to decide what is to be done.

Example: She was used to calling the shots, to being in charge.
Sally always wants to call the shots, and Mary doesn't like to be bossed around. They don't get along well.
The company was more successful when just one or two people were calling the shots.
It's up to the boss to call the shots.

***



to kiss goodbye - to be forced to regard as lost, ruined, or hopeless.
If someone tells you that you can kiss something goodbye, you have no chance of getting or having it.

Example: She can kiss her vacation plans goodbye.

***



to be in the throes of something - to be experiencing a very difficult or unpleasant period; to be in the midst of a difficult struggle.

Example: The country is presently in the throes of the worst recession since the second world war.
We're in the throes of moving house at the moment.
The country was in the throes of economic collapse.
We were in the throes of giving a formal dinner when my in-laws arrived.

Usage notes: The noun throe, meaning “a severe spasm of pain,” was at first used mainly for such physical events as childbirth or dying. Today it is used both seriously and more lightly.

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